Brought to you by: Cole County Industries
Winter is upon us, that time of year when the “Mid-Missouri” temperature drops below freezing at night
then back up during the day. The past winter brought us several periods of drastic changes in temperatures,
along with several periods of frozen ground for extended periods. These freeze/thaw cycles can lead to
the scaling of concrete surfaces.
The National Ready Mixed Concrete
Association (NRMCA) defines scaling as local flaking or peeling of a finished surface of hardened concrete as a result of
exposure to freezing and thawing. Scaling will normally begin as a small area but can expand to cover large
Although it is likely that scaling will never be eliminated due to the many variables that contribute to it, the Portland
Cement Association (PCA), NRMCA and ACI International have developed the following guidelines to help minimize scaling.
1. Use an air-entrained, low water/cement
ratio (0.45 or less w/c, as delivered), moderate slump concrete (not exceeding 5 inches) with a 28-day compressive strength
potential of at least 4000 psi. Except when absolutely necessary, do not retemper concrete before placement.
2. Avoid finishing practices that reduce or eliminate the air-entrained voids in the wearing surface layer, or that
result relative to the bulk concrete at lower depths. Do not perform any finishing operations with water present on the slab
surface. Delay finishing until all bleed water has risen to, and disappeared from, the surface.
3. Provide adequate curing for the concrete.
4. Avoid late season concrete placement, where concrete can experience freezing conditions and/or exposure to deicing
salts before (a) the concrete has reached 4000 psi, and/or (b) the slab has had at least 30 days of air drying.
5. Protect first year concrete from the harsh winter environment. Prevent newly placed concrete
from becoming saturated with water prior to freeze and thaw cycles during the winter months by applying a silane or siloxane-
based breathable concrete sealer (do follow the manufacturer's application recommendations).
Do not use deicing salts in the first year after placing the concrete. Use clean sand for traction. When conditions
permit, hose off salt accumulations deposited by vehicles on newly placed driveways, approaches, and garage slabs. Never use
ammonium sulfate or ammonium nitrate as a deicer; these are chemically aggressive and destroy concrete surfaces.
6. Provide proper drainage. Poor drainage permits water or deicer and water to stay on the concrete surface for extended
periods, increasing the severity of exposure for the concrete and promoting scaling, especially in driveway, sidewalk, and
curb and gutter applications.
7. Acrylic sealers, such as Tiah Concrete Sealer, aid in the protection of your concrete
investment and are available from Cole County Industries.
Adequate curing is a must for the development of strength, water-tightness and durability in hardened concrete. It
is very important to provide and maintain satisfactory moisture and temperature conditions immediately after concrete placement
and finishing, and for as long as practical. As a general rule, the length of the curing period for concrete flatwork in temperatures
above 40 degrees F should be a minimum of 7 days, or the time necessary for the concrete to reach 70% of its specified compressive
strength. The later in the season it gets, the longer it will take to reach these points.
We at Cole County
Industries value you as a customer. We take pride in providing concrete for your projects.
Please take caution in protecting your concrete investment to avoid unnecessary repairs and affected surfaces when
spring arrives. We assure you that with Cole County Industries you are receiving the highest quality product
matched with customer service available. For this reason we want YOU, OUR CUSTOMER,
to be informed of the precautions to take in protecting your concrete for the duration.
Please pass this
information on to your customers, clients, neighbors, friends, etc!!! For our contractors, please let us
know if you would like us to mail a copy of this document to your home-owner/customer. If you have any
further questions, please contact us at 573.635.4101.
Please e-mail questions and/or additional addresses to: firstname.lastname@example.org
The staff of Cole County Industries thanks you for your business throughout the year, and we wish everyone a safe and